运维福音——Terraform 自动化管理京东云

阅读数:514 2019 年 10 月 24 日 20:58

运维福音——Terraform自动化管理京东云

Terraform 是一个高度可扩展的 IT 基础架构自动化编排工具,主张基础设施即代码,可通过代码集中管理云资源和基础架构,这意味着用户能够在京东云上轻松使用简单模板语言来定义、预览和部署云基础架构,能够快速将环境部署到京东云或本地数据中心,实现多云管理和跨云迁移。其应用场景包括:基础设施即代码、快速部署多云环境、自动化管理降低成本。

Terraform 是 Hashicorp 公司一款开源的资源编排工具,代表了业界前沿的技术和标准。相对于其他云上资源管理方式,具有快速创建基础设施、高效部署多云环境和大幅降低管理成本三大功能特性。

Terraform 通过代码管理维护云资源,可保存基础设施资源的状态,快速创建和维护管理云主机、网络、负载均衡等云资源,并通过代码与其他人共享云资源的编排配置。

Terraform 支持 200 多个基础设施提供商,适用于多云方案,可快速将用户的环境部署到京东云、其他云厂商或者本地的数据中心。开发者可同时管理不同云厂商的资源,也可快速方便地迁移到另外一个云厂商。Terraform 通过代码批量按计划地管理资源,可编排、重复地自动化管理云资源,减少人为因素造成的不确定管理错误,同时能快速创建相同的开发、测试、预发和生成环境,降低开发者的管理成本。

本文通过简单 demo 做一个技术入门的演示,目的是帮助大家了解如何采用 Terraform 来自动化管理京东云上的资源。

Terraform 安装

Terraform 是一个 IT 基础架构自动化编排工具,它的口号是 “Write, Plan, and create Infrastructure as Code”, 其程序安装在客户的终端 PC 上,可以运行于多种操作系统平台。本文实例采用的是 CentOS 操作系统。

登录到主机后先下载一下安装包

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1[jdc@mysandbox ~]$ mkdir tf
2[jdc@mysandbox ~]$ cd tf
3[jdc@mysandbox tf]$ wget https://releases.hashicorp.com/terraform/0.11.13/terraform_0.11.13_linux_amd64.zip
4--2019-05-16 14:41:57-- https://releases.hashicorp.com/terraform/0.11.13/terraform_0.11.13_linux_amd64.zip
5Resolving releases.hashicorp.com (releases.hashicorp.com)... 151.101.109.183, 2a04:4e42:1a::439
6Connecting to releases.hashicorp.com (releases.hashicorp.com)|151.101.109.183|:443... connected.
7HTTP request sent, awaiting response... 200 OK
8Length: 21128942 (20M) [application/zip]
9Saving to: ‘terraform_0.11.13_linux_amd64.zip’
10
11100%[============================================================================================================================================================>] 21,128,942 4.30MB/s in 66s
12
132019-05-16 14:43:05 (312 KB/s) - ‘terraform_0.11.13_linux_amd64.zip’ saved [21128942/21128942]

解压缩

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1[jdc@mysandbox tf]$ ls
2terraform_0.11.13_linux_amd64.zip[jdc@mysandbox tf]$ unzip terraform_0.11.13_linux_amd64.zip
3Archive: terraform_0.11.13_linux_amd64.zip
4inflating: terraform

直接运行程序可以看到以下命令行的帮助信息:

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1$ terraform
2Usage: terraform [--version] [--help] <command> [args]
3
4The available commands for execution are listed below.
5The most common, useful commands are shown first, followed byless common or more advanced commands. If you're just gettingstarted with Terraform, stick with the common commands. For theother commands, please read the help and docs before usage.
6
7Common commands:
8apply Builds or changes infrastructure
9console Interactive console for Terraform interpolations destroy Destroy Terraform-managed infrastructure
10fmt Rewrites config files to canonical format
11get Download and install modules for the configuration
12graph Create a visual graph of Terraform resources import Import existing infrastructure into Terraform init Initialize a new or existing Terraform configuration
13output Read an output from a state file
14plan Generate and show an execution plan
15providers Prints a tree of the providers used in the configuration
16push Upload this Terraform module to Terraform Enterprise to run
17refresh Update local state file against real resources
18show Inspect Terraform state or plan
19taint Manually mark a resource for recreation
20untaint Manually unmark a resource as tainted
21validate Validates the Terraform files
22version Prints the Terraform version
23workspace Workspace management
24
25All other commands:
26debug Debug output management (experimental)
27force-unlock Manually unlock the terraform state
28state Advanced state management

举例:查看 Terraform 版本

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1[jdc@mysandbox tf]$ ./terraform version
2Terraform v0.11.13

初始化环境

Terraform 访问京东云的服务,首先需要身份认证鉴权。认证采用 Access Key 与 Secret key 来完成。从控制台取得 AK、SK 身份鉴权信息两种方法保存:
运维福音——Terraform自动化管理京东云

方法 1:将 AK,SK 加入运行环境

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1[jdc@mysandbox tf]$ cat >> ~/.bash_profile <<EOF
2> #### add Hongwei 20190516
3> export access_key="D4xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx8D"
4> export secret_key="7xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxE"
5> export region="cn-north-1"> EOF
6[jdc@mysandbox tf]$ . ~/.bash_profile

方法 2:将 AK,SK 放入 json 文件

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1cat >> jdcloud.tf <<EOF
2provider "jdcloud" {
3 access_key = "D4xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx8D"
4 secret_key = "7xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxE "
5 region = "cn-north-1"}
6EOF

初始化环境

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1[jdc@mysandbox tf]$ ./terraform init
2
3Initializing provider plugins...
4- Checking for available provider plugins on https://releases.hashicorp.com...
5- Downloading plugin for provider "jdcloud" (0.0.1)...
6
7The following providers do not have any version constraints in configuration,so the latest version was installed.
8
9To prevent automatic upgrades to new major versions that may contain breakingchanges, it is recommended to add version = "..." constraints to thecorresponding provider blocks in configuration, with the constraint stringssuggested below.
10
11* provider.jdcloud: version = "~> 0.0"
12
13Terraform has been successfully initialized!
14
15You may now begin working with Terraform. Try running "terraform plan" to seeany changes that are required for your infrastructure. All Terraform commandsshould now work.
16
17If you ever set or change modules or backend configuration for Terraform,rerun this command to reinitialize your working directory. If you forget, othercommands will detect it and remind you to do so if necessary.

演示:创建一个云主机实例

参考 Terraform 的联机文档,创建以下 tf 文件:jdcloud_instance.tf

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1resource "jdcloud_instance" "vm-1" {
2 az = "cn-north-1a"
3 instance_name = "vm-1"
4 instance_type = "g.n2.medium"
5 image_id = "bba85cab-dfdc-4359-9218-7a2de429dd80"
6 password = "cNXOxJywMU6IY7c0CgIj"
7 subnet_id = "subnet-35h6keqh4m"
8 network_interface_name = "example_ni_name"
9 primary_ip = "10.0.0.27"
10 secondary_ip_count = 0
11 security_group_ids = ["sg-chx9tv75xa"]
12
13 system_disk = {
14 disk_category = "local"
15 device_name = "vda"
16 disk_type="ssd"
17 disk_size_gb = 40
18}
19
20data_disk = {
21 disk_category = "cloud"
22 device_name = "vdc"
23 disk_type = "ssd"
24 disk_name = "exampleDisk"
25 disk_size_gb = 50
26 az = "cn-north-1a"
27
28 auto_delete = true
29 disk_name = "vm1-datadisk-1"
30 description = "test"
31 }
32}

plan 命令可以显示执行计划:

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1[jdc@mysandbox tf]$ ./terraform plan
2Refreshing Terraform state in-memory prior to plan...
3The refreshed state will be used to calculate this plan, but will not bepersisted to local or remote state storage.
4
5jdcloud_instance.vm-1: Refreshing state... (ID: i-y8ye9jd6ny)
6
7------------------------------------------------------------------------
8
9An execution plan has been generated and is shown below.
10Resource actions are indicated with the following symbols:-/+ destroy and then create replacement
11
12Terraform will perform the following actions:
13
14-/+ jdcloud_instance.vm-1 (new resource required)
15id: "i-y8ye9jd6ny" => <computed> (forces new resource)
16az: "cn-north-1a" => "cn-north-1a"
17data_disk.#: "1" => "1"
18data_disk.0.auto_delete: "true" => "true"
19data_disk.0.az: "cn-north-1a" => "cn-north-1a"
20data_disk.0.description: "test" => "test"
21data_disk.0.device_name: "vdc" => "vdc"
22data_disk.0.disk_category: "cloud" => "cloud"
23data_disk.0.disk_id: "vol-fhvqnjyxw7" => <computed>
24data_disk.0.disk_name: "vm1-datadisk-1" => "vm1-datadisk-1"
25data_disk.0.disk_size_gb: "50" => "50"
26data_disk.0.disk_type: "ssd" => "ssd" image_id: "bba85cab-dfdc-4359-9218-7a2de429dd80" => "bba85cab-dfdc-4359-9218-7a2de429dd80"
27instance_name: "vm-1" => "vm-1"
28instance_type: "g.n2.medium" => "g.n2.medium"
29ip_addresses.#: "0" => <computed>
30network_interface_name: "example_ni_name" => "example_ni_name"
31password: <sensitive> => <sensitive> (attribute changed)
32primary_ip: "10.0.0.27" => "10.0.0.27"
33secondary_ip_count: <sensitive> => <sensitive> (attribute changed)
34security_group_ids.#: "1" => "1"
35security_group_ids.4008937636: "sg-chx9tv75xa" => "sg-chx9tv75xa"
36subnet_id: "subnet-35h6keqh4m" => "subnet-35h6keqh4m"
37system_disk.#: "1" => "1"
38system_disk.0.auto_delete: "true" => <computed>
39system_disk.0.az: "" => <computed>
40system_disk.0.device_name: "vda" => "vda"
41system_disk.0.disk_category: "local" => "local"
42system_disk.0.disk_id: "" => <computed>
43system_disk.0.disk_name: "" => <computed>
44system_disk.0.disk_size_gb: "40" => "40"
45system_disk.0.disk_type: "" => "ssd" (forces new resource)

提交执行:

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1[jdc@mysandbox tf]$ ./terraform apply -auto-approve
2jdcloud_instance.vm-1: Creating...
3az: "" => "cn-north-1a"
4data_disk.#: "" => "1"
5data_disk.0.auto_delete: "" => "true"
6data_disk.0.az: "" => "cn-north-1a"
7data_disk.0.description: "" => "test"
8data_disk.0.device_name: "" => "vdc"
9data_disk.0.disk_category: "" => "cloud"
10data_disk.0.disk_id: "" => "<computed>"
11data_disk.0.disk_name: "" => "vm1-datadisk-1"
12data_disk.0.disk_size_gb: "" => "50"
13data_disk.0.disk_type: "" => "ssd"
14image_id: "" => "bba85cab-dfdc-4359-9218-7a2de429dd80"
15instance_name: "" => "vm-1"
16instance_type: "" => "g.n2.medium"
17ip_addresses.#: "" => "<computed>"
18network_interface_name: "" => "example_ni_name"
19password: "<sensitive>" => "<sensitive>"
20primary_ip: "" => "10.0.0.27"
21secondary_ip_count: "<sensitive>" => "<sensitive>"
22security_group_ids.#: "" => "1"
23security_group_ids.4008937636: "" => "sg-chx9tv75xa"
24subnet_id: "" => "subnet-35h6keqh4m"
25system_disk.#: "" => "1"
26system_disk.0.auto_delete: "" => "<computed>"
27system_disk.0.az: "" => "<computed>"
28system_disk.0.device_name: "" => "vda"
29system_disk.0.disk_category: "" => "local"
30system_disk.0.disk_id: "" => "<computed>"
31system_disk.0.disk_name: "" => "<computed>"
32system_disk.0.disk_size_gb: "" => "40" system_disk.0.
33disk_type: "" => "ssd"jdcloud_instance.vm-1: Still creating... (10s elapsed)
34jdcloud_instance.vm-1: Still creating... (20s elapsed)
35jdcloud_instance.vm-1: Still creating... (30s elapsed)
36jdcloud_instance.vm-1: Still creating... (40s elapsed)
37jdcloud_instance.vm-1: Still creating... (50s elapsed)
38jdcloud_instance.vm-1: Still creating... (1m0s elapsed)
39jdcloud_instance.vm-1: Creation complete after 1m1s (ID: i-y8ye9jd6ny)
40Apply complete! Resources: 1 added, 0 changed, 0 destroyed.

成功提交后,我们可以在控制台看到正在运行的实例创建过程:
运维福音——Terraform自动化管理京东云

创建完成后登录主机查看是否与定义文件符合:

  • 查看磁盘划分是否一致:
    运维福音——Terraform自动化管理京东云

  • 查看 IP 地址是否一致:
    运维福音——Terraform自动化管理京东云

演示:销毁实例

通过 destroy 命令可以方便的删除实例。

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1[jdc@mysandbox tf]$ ./terraform destroy
2jdcloud_instance.vm-1: Refreshing state... (ID: i-y8ye9jd6ny)
3
4An execution plan has been generated and is shown below.
5Resource actions are indicated with the following symbols: - destroy
6
7Terraform will perform the following actions:
8 - jdcloud_instance.vm-1
9
10Plan: 0 to add, 0 to change, 1 to destroy.
11
12Do you really want to destroy all resources?
13 Terraform will destroy all your managed infrastructure, as shown above.
14 There is no undo. Only 'yes' will be accepted to confirm.
15
16 Enter a value: yesjdcloud_instance.vm-1: Destroying... (ID: i-y8ye9jd6ny)
17
18jdcloud_instance.vm-1: Still destroying... (ID: i-y8ye9jd6ny, 10s elapsed)
19jdcloud_instance.vm-1: Still destroying... (ID: i-y8ye9jd6ny, 20s elapsed)
20jdcloud_instance.vm-1: Still destroying... (ID: i-y8ye9jd6ny, 30s elapsed)
21jdcloud_instance.vm-1: Still destroying... (ID: i-y8ye9jd6ny, 40s elapsed)
22jdcloud_instance.vm-1: Destruction complete after 41s
23
24Destroy complete! Resources: 1 destroyed.

在控制台上查看删除进度:
运维福音——Terraform自动化管理京东云

Terraform 自动编排的流程

以上只是演示了 Terraform 管理京东云最简单的流程。实际上通过 Terraform 完成复杂的编排,完全可以完成一个复杂的大型环境的部署与管理。以下是 Terraform 的流程:
运维福音——Terraform自动化管理京东云
到此,我们的演示就结束了。

大家可以自己动手试一下这种简洁高效的京东云自动化管理工具了。

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